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In late March, foreign media suddenly announced that the domestic commercial video site American drama content will be scrutinized, and many American dramas will face the danger of being off the shelf. Since then, the introduction of the US drama will also be strictly managed. This has led to the domestic resentment of American drama fans and Panic, the industry policy of domestic commercial video websites has also caused widespread concern in the industry. There is no doubt that this is a rumors, but no wind can not afford to rise, the "net net operation" that began in April has already put the focus of the attack on the head of online video, and a group of American dramas went offline.
1. Network audiovisual regulatory policy
In March 2014, the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television republished the â€œNotice on Further Strengthening the Management of Online Audio-visual Programs for Online Dramas, Microfilms, etc.â€ promulgated in July 2012 on the official website, and the â€œAbout the Further Improvementâ€ issued in January 2014. Supplementary notices on network audiovisual program management such as network dramas and microfilms. These two documents mainly regulate the production, review, supervision and market access of online self-produced dramas and microfilms, which can be mainly attributed to the two. First, the program production agency must hold a permit, namely the "operating license for radio and television programs", and second, the individual must make and upload the program to the real name system, and the first document made the most serious violations for 5 years without permission. Strict regulations. The competent department of the industry emphasized that the management of self-produced plays and micro-movies can be said to follow the trend and standardize management. In 2013, the production of self-produced dramas and micro-movies in the country rapidly increased, and continued prosperity continued. In 2014, major video websites made large-scale budgets on home-made dramas. Under such conditions, the competent authorities will make provisions for market entities, content review, and industry supervision to effectively promote the healthy and orderly development of the self-produced drama and micro-film industries, and prevent the mud and sand from destroying the new industries.
For the introduction of overseas film and television programs by commercial video websites, in April 2009, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television issued the â€œNotice on Strengthening the Management of Internet Audiovisual Program Contentsâ€, which clearly requires that the contents of overseas introduced programs broadcast on the Internet should comply with the policy and have corresponding Copyright, domestic and foreign films that have not obtained the "Pictures for the Public Release of Permits", domestic and foreign television dramas that have not obtained the "Drama Release Permit", domestic and foreign cartoons that have not obtained the "TV Cartoon Distribution Permit", and have not obtained "theoretical literature The theoretical documentary film of the film broadcast license shall not be disseminated on the Internet.
2, disorderly development of network audio and video content
However, the current status and policy requirements of overseas video content on commercial video websites are far apart. At present, the main domestic commercial video websites basically have the introduction of foreign films, variety shows, animations and other programs. The scope includes the United States, Britain, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and other parts of the world, not just the most popular American drama. After several rounds of fierce copyright contention and litigation, the copyright awareness of domestic commercial video websites has greatly improved, and copyright input and bandwidth investment have become the two largest inputs. In 2013, the investment in video copyright content of domestic commercial video websites reached several billion yuan. Domestic commercial video websites have become a new distribution channel for overseas film and television programs, especially classic American dramas, old American dramas, etc. This is the reason why overseas media have turned their attention to domestic The main reason for the introduction of copyright policies rather than copyright, reporting that the nationâ€™s large-scale blockade of American TV dramas can attract the attention of the entire Hollywood industry. According to the regulations of the competent department, copyright is only a prerequisite, and overseas introductions are required before they can go online. However, at present, the operation mode of almost all commercial video websites is directly on the line after they have purchased overseas copyrighted programs. They have not been approved by relevant competent authorities to obtain on-line licenses, and the relevant competent authorities are unable to manage the content of online overseas programs. The cat and the mouse are in a state of peace and a glance.
What caused the foreign media to be sensitive is that this kind of continuous violation of the commercial television site, the introduction of the American drama, may be punished at any time by the policy tightening, which directly affects Hollywood's commercial interests. Foreign media have seen strict control over self-produced dramas and micro-movies, which have caused fears of blocking and escaping American TV dramas. However, it is not without reason that the strengthening of content supervision is becoming a new direction in the transformation of industry policies.
3, the network audio and video into the TV side of the challenge
The regulations governing the management of Internet audio-visual programs by the competent authorities, including the three documents mentioned above and the â€œRegulations on the Administration of Internet Audio-visual Program Servicesâ€ promulgated in 2007 (which mainly stipulates the implementation of the licensing system for video websites by the competent department of radio and television) It is for the PC Internet, that is, the PC screen to watch the terminal's network audio-visual services. Since 2008, with the popularization of smart phones such as smart phones and PADs, mobile smart terminals have become new terminals for Internet video. The regulations of the integrated licenses and content licenses of mobile TV were dispelled by the industry authorities, and the mobile Internet video actually implemented the same regulatory policy as the PC Internet video. In other words, the Internet video service using a TV as a terminal is another management standard.
According to the relevant documents and speeches of the SARFT, TVs with television as the viewing terminal's Internet TV service is a kind of radio and TV service, not a network audio-visual service. Radio and television services are also provided by television stations and cable television. Internet television must be supervised according to the standards of broadcasting and television. The radio and television services are subject to very strict supervision in the review of program broadcasts, introduction of programs, programming of programs, opening of channels, broadcast periods, and even advertising content. Radio and television need to introduce overseas film and television programs and animation programs such as American dramas. Its introduction methods, procedures, reviews, quotas, broadcast volume, and broadcast periods are extremely strict.
Compared with radio and television, the introduction of overseas programs for commercial video websites is completely unapproved. It is just a matter of reviewing the legitimacy of content (cutting off pornographic violence, etc.). It is almost a state of complete freedom. As long as the content is not reactionary or pornographic and violent, commercial video sites can conduct commercial operations in the country after purchasing the rights of overseas film and television programs. This situation has already been approved by the competent authorities.
However, things are changing. The intelligentization of televisions has been accelerating. In 2013, domestic TV shipments reached 45 million units, and smart TVs have already accounted for 50%. In the next few years, the televisions will be fully intelligent, and 500 million TV sets in usersâ€™ homes will also pass the intelligence. The set-top box gradually realizes networking. At present, China's Internet TV terminals have shipped more than 70 million units and are growing rapidly. At the same time, the network bandwidth has been continuously improved, FTTH fiber home coverage continues to increase, 4G mobile broadband networks continue to gain popularity, and video coding and decoding technologies such as H.265 continue to increase. The commercialization of 3D and 4K programs on TV screens has become a reality. From a technical and business standpoint, commercial video websites are fully capable of transmitting programs across screens. Commercial video websites have entered the user's living room through various means such as cottage set-top boxes.
4. The logic and future of the evolution of Internet audiovisual policy
Obviously, the industryâ€™s competent authorities have always regarded radio and television, which covers a population of 1.4 billion people, as the main position for public opinion propaganda. They will never tolerate Internet video on PC screens to directly serve TVs. The management of Internet video must be made accordingly. Adjustments. In the situation where intelligent terminal supervision becomes impossible, content supervision will inevitably become a top priority. As a result, the foreign mediaâ€™s concern about the introduction of the American drama has been fulfilled, and the â€œnet net operationâ€ has hit the fast broadcast. At the same time, it will also force several American dramas to go offline. The introduction of commercial video websites, self-produced contents, and UGC content must also be conducted in advance. Post broadcast. The author believes that this is not only a specific administrative act, it will certainly become the opportunity for standardized management of content in the online video industry. This policy will not change in the coming period of time and will become the main policy of content supervision in the online video industry in the next few years. On the whole, the policy of pre-trial post-casting is not only at the same time as the development of standardized video website content, but it also has the problem of inhibiting its vitality.
Commercial video websites extend from PC screens and mobile screens to TV screens. Launching a â€œmultiple-screen, multi-screen communicationâ€ business is an inevitable development of technology and business, and the supervisory methods of industry competent departments are always content supervision, channel supervision, and terminal management. With the multi-pronged supervision and the extension of commercial video websites to TV screens, the tension between the two began to appear. It can be foreseen that due to the comprehensive intelligence and openness of video viewing terminals such as mobile phones, PADs, PCs, OTT smart set-top boxes, and smart TVs, users can access the public Internet through brushing, jailbreaking, and other actions. The supervision is unsustainable and will gradually abandon terminal supervision. With regard to channel supervision, on the basis of continuing to maintain control over cable television networks, satellite television networks, terrestrial television networks, and IPTV private networks, the public Internet that transmits online video cannot be supervised.
As a result, supervision from the source of content will become the main adjustment direction of the supervisory policies of industry authorities in the coming years.
The competent authorities continue their stringent regulatory policies on broadcast TV screens. The efforts of commercial video sites to enter TV screens are likely to hit the rocks and do not comply with the overseas video content of SARFT's 42nd order (â€œRegulations on the Introduction and Broadcasting of Overseas Television Programsâ€). Will not be able to be broadcast on TV screens. For video sites, PC-side and mobile-side video content, including various American dramas and other overseas content, home-made dramas, and UGC content, are subject to stricter regulatory levels than broadcast television. TV screen. At present, the extension of the video site to the TV end is a radical market attempt, and the integration of video content on the TV end is imperative.
From the long-term perspective of the development of the industry, another possibility is that commercial video websites have the same qualifications as TV stations to enter the TV. The competent authorities have re-adjusted the content monitoring policy, and managed video content in different levels and categories. Video sites will have a real opportunity to develop TV. . However, in the short term, this possibility is extremely small, and video and video sites continue to plunge into PC screens and mobile screens as well. Otherwise, the consequences of lightning strikes are very serious.
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